Fall 2008 Newsletter
On-Line Newsletter Volume 7, Number 1
Published September 21, 2008
Edited by Chaplain John Ehman, Network Convener
Network members are encouraged to submit articles for upcoming issues.
The Newsletter is published three times a year: Fall, Winter, and Spring-Summer.
The Winter 2009 issue is scheduled to be published in January.
Table of Contents
- Research and ACPE: A Letter from ACPE President Bill Scrivener
- A New Supervisor Plans Research into the ACPE Certification Process
- Ideal Intervention Paper (IIP) Project Presented at National Conferences
- Proceedings of the First Annual Meeting of the Society for Spirituality, Theology, and Health
- New Theoretical Models for Spirituality in Multicultural, Whole-Person Medicine
- 3-Factor Model for the FACIT-Sp
- Research in The Journal of Health Care Chaplaincy
- Convener's Report and Annual Meeting Agenda
1. Research and ACPE: A Letter from ACPE President Bill Scrivener
My interest in this subject comes later in my life and is rooted in several things. The earliest is my experience while Chair of the ACPE Certification Commission. I would often hear complaints about the certification process, usually coupled with an insistence that it be “fixed.” However, there were no data to show what part of the process might be broken to begin with, and certainly no data to suggest a pathway to better outcomes (however one defined “better”). That was frustrating. Another is that I work in an institution that has a large and very high-powered research component. One can’t work here for very long without beginning to take in the ethos of asking the right questions and testing them rigorously. Which led to the third piece, which is that I have people on my staff who are doing research of a substantive nature into issues of spiritual coping. They are asking the question: “How does spirituality affect coping, and what might be the implications of what we learn?” The answers may change our practice in the long run.
So, with all this in mind, I am very interested in questions relating to our CPE practice. These questions relate to a number of things: outcomes, curriculum design, admission practices, certification reviews, etc. The fundamental questions for me are: How do we know that something works (apart from intuition), and how do we know what will make it better? Secondarily, what are the data that inform that knowledge? I think that, for ACPE, to claim a fuller place in the larger world of education and certification, we need to become more professional in how we understand our work and how we articulate it to those who don’t already know who we are. My goal is to foster a climate in ACPE that will help us begin to do this. --Bill Scrivener, ACPE President and Senior Director of Pastoral Care at Cincinnati Children's Hospital Medical Center
2. A New Supervisor Plans Research into the ACPE Certification Process
[From Shannon Borchert, Wesley Medical Center, Wichita KS:]
As a newly certified CPE Supervisor, I have had a personal interest and stake in the Certification process of ACPE. I learned about the process in order to get through it. The certification process also allowed me to get in touch with a deep love of lifelong learning. One of my committees suggested that I needed to learn more about group dynamics, and in order to meet this request, I sought out and enrolled in a class from Kansas State University called "Group Dynamics in Adult Education." The class provided rich content that had direct and immediate application to the groups that I was supervising, as well as for the theory papers I would need to write. The learning was so rich, empowering, and fun that I was quickly "hooked" on adult education.
Now, almost thirty credit hours later, I am nearing the point in my doctoral studies that I must begin the research and writing of a dissertation. I have not yet narrowed my topic, but I know that it will focus on the certification process of ACPE. As part of my initial literature review, I compiled a brief, annotated bibliography, and at the invitation of our Network Convener, I share that with you here in this month's Newsletter. [Click for Adult Education and Clinical Pastoral Education: An Introductory Bibliography (PDF.)]
I have also recently come upon Bill Scrivener’s article on certification: Scrivener, W. E., "Competence in supervision: reflections of a former chair," Journal of Supervision and Training in Ministry 24 (2004): 19-32. The article is a broad overview of the certification process from the experienced perspective of a former Chair of the Certification Commission. The final section of the essay describes how the certification process is part of the larger system of ACPE, and Scrivener makes the argument that certification cannot be examined in isolation from other areas of the organization, such as standards and accreditation. If certification pass rates are going to increase, then other changes will have to be addressed in the organization. He suggests remedies for how to improve the certification process and notes that the training process for supervisory candidates is not equal around the country. Some programs have well-defined curricula and other programs do not. Some training supervisors have significant experience in supervisory education and others do not. These and many other inequities may cause a candidate to be unknowingly unprepared to meet the standards.
One focus of my research will be to compile the actual numbers surrounding the certification process. How many people begin Supervisory Education and make it to Candidate? How many people drop out before candidacy? How long does the process take on average? These and all the other numbers associated with the pass rates in certification would be important benchmarks for the whole organization to know. After the numbers, I think it would be necessary to research some of the more challenging questions raised by Scrivener. What are the crucial factors involved in a candidate making it to Associate Supervisor? Is it curriculum, academic prowess, emotional maturity, expertise of the training supervisor, or a combination of factors? My brief bibliography is only the beginning of a full literature review, and it focuses on the topic of competency and certification not only in ACPE but in other cognate groups, and other fields closely connected with pastoral care and counseling. It is my hope that by researching how other organizations conduct their certification process, we might be able to enrich the process in ACPE. --JE
3. Ideal Intervention Paper (IIP) Project Presented at National Conferences
Supervisor Emeritus Jack Gleason and Fr. Henry Heffernan are working with a growing number of supervisors across the ACPE to develop the Ideal Intervention Paper (IIP): an instrument for the consolidation of student learning from verbatim peer group presentations. This is an innovation to the verbatim process that also has great potential for discipline-wide research identifying evidence-based spiritual care best practices. For the latest flyer advertising the project to ACPE supervisors, see: "Something New Under the CPE Sun" (PDF).
On June 26, 2008, Dr. Gleason presented "Evidence-Based Spiritual Care Best Practices" --a session on the IIP project at the First Annual Meeting of the Society for Spirituality, Theology, and Health at Duke University (www.societysth.org). That conference was "designed to bring together transdisciplinary scholars and interested physicians, clergy, chaplains, nurses and lay persons from the United States and other parts of the world to present and discuss the latest research in spirituality, theology, and health" [p. 2 of the meeting program]. The paper session on the IIP was well-attended and sparked animated discussion. Materials presented at the session are available online via the "2008 Annual Meeting" section of the www.societysth.org website, or direct downloads may be made of the PowerPoint slides [PDF version], a Background Discussion Paper, and a brief introduction to the IIP Protocol.
A workshop on the IIP -- "CPE Breakthrough: A New Learning Tool" -- will be offered at the ACPE annual conference in Richmond, VA on October 24, 2008, and members of the Network are encouraged to attend. The description of the workshop in the conference brochure is as follows:
This ACPE Board of Representatives-approved project consolidates student learnings after verbatim presentations in group by requiring the Ideal Intervention Paper (IIP). Several trials in the East Central and Eastern ACPE Regions have produced strong praise for the IIP in enabling students to acquire greater depth of critical reflection and integration of skills. Further, students are learning experience-based patient care planning as well as contributing to the chaplaincy-wide task of identifying evidence-based best practices. This workshop will introduce the IIP and show its use by presenting a verbatim, discussing it, and then writing an IIP response. Presented by: The Rev. John J. Gleason, CPE Supervisor (PT) and ACPE Supervisor Emeritus at St. Vincent Hospital, Indianapolis, IN. The Rev. Yoke-Lye Jerrymia Lim Kwong, ACPE Supervisor at Howard Regional Health System, Kokomo, IN. The Rev. Paul D. Steinke, ACPE Supervisor at Bellevue Hospital Center, New York, NY.
Also, on February 2, 2009, Dr. Gleason and Rev. Yoke Lye Lim Kwong will present at the Spiritual Care Collaborative Summit a workshop: "An Outlandish Idea: Evidence‐Based Spiritual Care Best Practices," described in the conference brochure:
This ACPE-sanctioned project employs an innovative inductive design. CPE students’ Ideal Intervention Papers consolidate learnings from verbatim presentations. Certified spiritual care clinicians edit the papers into potential best practices, and their colleagues access a database by central issue identifiers to inform their own interventions. Care recipients rate effectiveness. Effective interventions are designated tentative best practices. Replication of effective interventions determines evidence-based spiritual care best practices. Workshop Goals:
1) Understand the context of and the need for evidence-based spiritual care best practices, 2) Understand the overall project and its immediate and long-term goals, and 3) See the need to become full participants in this vital SCC-wide undertaking.
For the handout that will be distributed at the session, click HERE (PDF).
The East Central Region has awarded a grant to help promote the IIP project at ACPE regional meetings and related venues, and foundation funding is currently being sought under ACPE, Inc. sponsorship. For more information, contact Jack Gleason at: email@example.com.
4. Proceedings of the First Annual Meeting of the Society for Spirituality, Theology, and Health
The proceedings of the First Annual Meeting of the Society for Spirituality, Theology, and Health at Duke University [www.societysth.org --noted above in §3] have been posted online by the Society. [Note (added 8/16/09): Materials from the meeting are now available on line only to members of the organization.]
5. New Theoretical Models for Spirituality in Multicultural, Whole-Person Medicine
Gowri Anandarajah, MD, Brown University Medical School, has been a significant contributor to the spirituality & health literature in the past decade, writing about the inclusion of spirituality in medical school curricula and in clinical practice, and promoting the HOPE spiritual assessment [--see: Anandarajah, G. and Hight, E., "Spirituality and medical practice: using the HOPE questions as a practical tool for spiritual assessment," American Family Physician 63, no. 1 (January 1, 2001): 81-89]. In the September-October issue of the Annals of Family Medicine [vol. 6, no. 5, pp. 448-458], she proposes
"The 3 H and BMSEST models for spirituality in multicultural whole-person medicine," based upon her experience as a clinician, as an educator, and as a student of the world's major spiritual traditions, with personal roots in Hinduism and Christianity.
The author builds upon the work of Abraham Maslow to develop first her "3 H" [always written with a space between the number and letter] model of spirituality, designating aspects of head, heart, and hands.
The cognitive, or existential, (head) aspects include search for meaning and purpose, and values and beliefs
most important in one’s life. The experiential (heart) aspects encompass the human need for love, inner peace,
resilience, and connection. Finally, the behavioral (hands) aspects pertain to the outward expression of spiritual beliefs and needs, such as life choices, behavior toward others, rituals, and practices. These dimensions of spirituality are applicable to all human beings irrespective of culture or belief system, whether secular or religious. In the medical context, spiritual issues pertaining to the head include such questions as why is this happening to me (or my loved one), what will happen after I die, are these treatments consistent with my beliefs, and if God exists, where is God now? Spiritual issues related to the heart include the experiences of feeling connected vs alone when ill; feeling peace vs turmoil when facing death; or feeling hope vs despair when dealing with chronic illness. Finally, hands aspects can manifest in the medical context in a variety of ways including spiritually based treatment decisions by patients or families; patients’ requests for specific rituals, prayers, or diets; or physicians’ own needs for spiritual rituals or prayer when dealing with stressful situations. [p. 450]
She then incorporates the "3 H" model into a larger paradigm that revolves around the context of patient care: namely, the "BMSEST" model(s), whose six components are body, mind, spirit, environmental factors, social factors, and the transcendent. It would be beyond the scope of this notice to attempt to describe in detail this relatively complex model, which Anandarajah explicates through three different diagrams (pertaining to a secular and to two different theological worldviews), but one practical value of the model is that it lines out 10 relationships between variables that could be the foci of future research into spirituality and health. Those relationships are:
- interactions between body and mind.
- interactions between mind and spirit.
- interactions between body and spirit.
- interactions between environmental factors and the individual.
- interactions between social factors and the individual.
- therapeutic approaches at the body level.
- therapeutic approaches at the mind level.
- therapeutic approaches at the spirit level (specialized spiritual care).
- therapeutic effects at the spirit level (general spiritual care).
- interactions between the individual and the Transcendent.
This reader has, over the years, encountered many models of spirituality and spiritual care in the health care literature, and frankly they have almost all struck me as flights of intellectual fancy with little practical value to either clinical care or research. However, Anandarajah's attempts--while certainly abstract and complex--seem remarkably comprehensible as well as comprehensive, a function of her real-world commitment to understanding and working with spirituality in the medical setting. While her audience appears to be first, physicians, and second, researchers; chaplains should be able to identify well with the models (and she notes the work of chaplains and even mentions CPE in her text [--see pp. 448, 449, 451, and 455]). For myself, as a chaplain, I found the article an easy and intriguing read, and the conceptualizations put forward to be thought-provoking about the provision of pastoral care and the possibilities for research. The article is available online at www.annfammed.org/cgi/content/full/6/5/448, where online comments can also be submitted and tracked. --JE
[Note: Anandarajah's article is joined by two others and an editorial in this journal issue that is partly themed on spirituality & medicine. Full texts are available online. See: Davidson, R. J., "Spirituality and Medicine: Science and Practice," pp. 388-389 (www.annfammed.org/cgi/content/full/6/5/388); Daaleman T. P., Usher, B. M., Williams, S. W., Rawlings, J. and Hanson, L. C., "An exploratory study of spiritual care at the end of life," pp. 406-411 (www.annfammed.org/cgi/content/full/6/5/406); and Katerndahl, D. A., "Impact of spiritual symptoms and their interactions on health services and life satisfaction," pp. 412-420 (http://www.annfammed.org/cgi/content/full/6/5/412).]
6. 3-Factor Model for the FACIT-Sp
Among measures of spirituality/religion in current health research, the FACIT-Sp (Functional Assessment of Chronic Illness Therapy - Spiritual Well-Being Scale) is one of the most popular. Introduced in an article in the January 2002 issue of the Annals of Behavioral Medicine [--see Peterman, Fitchett, et al., "Measuring spiritual well-being in people with cancer…," featured in our February 2004 Article-of-the-Month], the 12-item instrument was developed and validated with input from chaplains, and one of the principal authors--George Fitchett--is an ACPE Supervisor. Initially, the measure was broken into two subscales: Meaning/Peace (8 items) and Faith (4 items); but new NIH-funded research supports further dividing the Meaning/Peace subscale. In a September 2008 article in Psycho-Oncology [vol. 17, no. 9, pp. 908-916], "A 3-factor model for the FACIT-Sp," authors Andrea L. Canada, Patricia E. Murphy, George Fitchett, Amy H. Peterman and Leslie R. Schover break out the Meaning/Peace subscale into its cognitive (Meaning) and Affective (Peace) dimensions [--adapted from Table 4, p. 913]:
The authors write: "[J]ust as the original FACIT-Sp 2-factor solution was more informative than the total score, the results of the present study demonstrate that the 3-factor solution is more informative than the
original 2-factor model" [p. 914]. Chaplain researchers using the FACIT-Sp should consider this new factor analysis in all future research. --JE
Supplemental note: See also the subsequently published:
- I feel peaceful [Peace subscale]
- I have a reason for living [Meaning subscale]
- My life has been productive [Meaning subscale]
- I have trouble feeling peace of mind [Peace subscale, with reverse scoring]
- I feel a sense of purpose in my life [Meaning subscale]
- I am able to reach down deep inside myself in order to feel comfort [Peace subscale]
- I feel a sense of harmony in myself [Peace subscale]
- My life lacks meaning and purpose [Meaning subscale, with reverse scoring]
Murphy, P. E., Canada, A. L., Fitchett, G., Stein, K., Portier, K., Crammer, C. and Peterman, A. H. "An examination of the 3-factor model and structural invariance across racial/ethnic groups for the FACIT-Sp: a report from the American Cancer Society's Study of Cancer Survivors-II (SCS-II)." Psycho-Oncology 19, no. 3 (March 2010): 264-272. [(Abstract:) OBJECTIVES: Recent confirmatory factor analysis (CFA) of the Functional Assessment of Chronic Illness Therapy-Spiritual Well-Being (FACIT-Sp) Scale in a sample of predominantly white women demonstrated that three factors, Meaning, Peace, and Faith, represented a psychometric improvement over the original 2-factor model. The present study tested these findings in a more diverse sample, assessed the stability of the model across racial/ethnic groups, and tested the contribution of a new item. METHODS: In a study by the American Cancer Society, 8805 cancer survivors provided responses on the FACIT-Sp, which we tested using CFA. RESULTS: A 3-factor model provided a better fit to the data than the 2-factor model in the sample as a whole and in the racial/ethnic subgroups (Deltachi(2), p<0.001, for all comparisons), but was not invariant across the groups. The model with equal parameters for racial/ethnic groups was a poorer fit to the data than a model that allowed these parameters to vary (Deltachi(2)(81)=2440.54, p<0.001), suggesting that items and their associated constructs might be understood differently across racial/ethnic groups. The new item improved the model fit and loaded on the Faith factor. CONCLUSIONS: The 3-factor model is likely to provide more specific information for studies in the field. In the construction of scales for use with diverse samples, researchers need to pay greater attention to racial/ethnic differences in interpretation of items.]
7. Research in The Journal of Health Care Chaplaincy
The Journal of Health Care Chaplaincy is often an excellent source for research articles by and for chaplains, yet many chaplains still seem unaware of it or have difficulty accessing it. The journal's tables of contents may be accessed through Informaworld. Research articles from the 2008 issues include:
Harding, S. R., Flannelly, K. J., Galek, K. and Tannenbaum, H. P. "Spiritual care, pastoral care and chaplains: trends in the health care literature." Journal of Health Care Chaplaincy 14, no. 2 (2008): 99-117. [Abstract: This study analyzes trends in the health care literature based on electronic searches of MEDLINE between the years 1980 and 2006. The search terms used were "spiritual care," "pastoral care," and "chaplain." The results document an expected surge in the rate of English-language journal articles about spiritual care beginning in the mid 1990s. Although the rate of articles about pastoral care was several times higher than that for spiritual care over much of the study period, there was a steady decline in articles about pastoral care during the past 10 years. These two trends produced a convergence in the rates, so by 2006 the rate of published articles on pastoral care (21.1 per 100,000) was less than twice as high as that on spiritual care (13.3 per 100,000). The rate of articles about chaplains rose moderately but significantly from 9.6 per 100,000 in the years 1980–1982 to 12.2 per 100,000 in the years 2004–2006. Increasing interest in spiritual care was evident in nursing, mental health, and general health care journals, being most pronounced in nursing. Declining interest in pastoral care was also most pronounced in nursing. This article discusses some implications of and responses to these trends.]
Handzo, G. F., Flannelly, K. J., Kudler, T., Fogg, S. L., Harding, S. R., Hasan, Y. H., Ross, A. M. and Taylor B. E. "What do chaplains really do? II. Interventions in the New York Chaplaincy Study." Journal of Health Care Chaplaincy 14, no. 1 (2008): 39-56. [Abstract: The current study analyzes data from 30,995 chaplain visits with patients and families that were part of the New York Chaplaincy Study. The data were collected at 13 healthcare institutions in the Greater New York City area from 1994-1996. Seventeen chaplain interventions were recorded: nine that were religious or spiritual in nature, and eight that were more general or not specifically religious. Chaplains used religious/spiritual interventions, alone or in conjunction with general interventions, in the vast majority of their visits with patients and families. The types of interventions used varied by the patient's medical status to some degree, but the pattern of interventions used was similar across faith group and medical status. The results document the unique role of the chaplain as a member of the healthcare care team and suggest there is desire among a broad range of patients, including those who claim no religion, to receive the kind of care chaplains provide.]
Handzo, G. F., Flannelly, K. J., Murphy, K. M., Bauman, J. P., Oettinger, M., Goodell, E., Hasan, Y. H., Barrie, D. P. and Jacobs, M. R. "What do chaplains really do? I. Visitation in the New York Chaplaincy Study." Journal of Health Care Chaplaincy 14, no. 1 (2008): 20-38. [Abstract: The current study presents findings from the New York Chaplaincy Study about chaplain visits with patients and their families in 13 healthcare institutions in the Greater New York City area during 1994-1996. It documents the distribution of 34,279 clinical visits by religious affiliation, population served (patients, family and friends), and type of healthcare setting (acute care and non-acute care), and analyzes the number and duration of visits with patients by their medical status. Chaplains in acute settings tended to make less frequent but longer visits with patients than chaplains in non-acute settings. On average, chaplains spent less time with patients who were alone than they did during visits with patients whose family was present during the visit or visits with only family members. Average visit duration was positively related to the percentage of visits in each of the 13 facilities that were made in response to referrals (r = .65, p < .05), and the average duration of referred visits was significantly longer (p < .001) than that of non-referred visits (p < .001). The findings are intended to provide a general picture of what these particular chaplains did in these particular institutions over this particular time-period and are not intended to represent a standard of what chaplains should be doing.]
Koenig, H. G. "Why research is important for chaplains." Journal of Health Care Chaplaincy 14, no. 2 (2008): 83-90. [Abstract: Research forms the basis for all health care disciplines, including nursing, medicine, and psychology. This research is necessary to document both the benefits and the costs of health care services, and applies equally to the services and interventions that chaplains provide. It is important that chaplains do this research, rather than others without sensitivity to the main issues at stake. Unfortunately, training in how to conduct research is not usually part of the education that chaplains receive. There are specific skills that need to be acquired in order to identify a research question, design a study to answer that question, obtain funding, manage the project, and publish the results. Learning these research skills will at some point become non-optional if chaplaincy is to continue to grow and flourish as a profession and receive the recognition and respect that it deserves.]
Vanderwerker, L. C., Flannelly, K. J., Galek, K., Harding, S. R., Handzo, G. F., Oettinger, M. and Bauman, J. P. "What do chaplains really do? III. Referrals in the New York Chaplaincy Study." Journal of Health Care Chaplaincy 14, no. 1 (2008): 57-73. [Abstract: The current study examines patterns of referrals to chaplains documented in the 1994-1996 New York Chaplaincy Study. The data were collected at thirteen healthcare institutions in the Greater New York City area. Of the 38,600 usable records in the sample, 18.4% were referrals, which form the sample for the current study (N = 7,094). The most common sources of referrals were nurses (27.8%) and patients themselves (22.3%), with relatively few referrals coming from physicians and social workers. The study shows the range of patient issues that are referred to chaplains, including emotional, spiritual, medical, relationship/support, and a change in diagnosis or prognosis. Although the reasons for referral varied by hospital setting and referral source, overall, patients were referred more frequently for emotional (30.0%) than for spiritual issues (19.9%). Results are discussed in relation to the need to clarify the role of the chaplain to the rest of the healthcare team, to recognize when there is a spiritual cause of emotional distress, and to establish effective referral protocols.]
Weaver, A. J., Flannelly, K. J. and Liu, C. "Chaplaincy research: its value, its quality, and its future." Journal of Health Care Chaplaincy 14, no. 1 (2008): 3-19. [Abstract: The article is divided into four major sections, the first of which presents and discusses various reasons given by major researchers in the field why chaplains should do research. The second section summarizes findings on the sophistication of research on religion and health published in (a) medical and other healthcare journals, and (b) specialty journals on religion and health, chaplaincy, and pastoral care and counseling. The third section revisits suggestions that have been made by prominent chaplain researchers to increase and improve research by chaplains. The last section offers some suggestions for expanding several lines of current research in the future, including research: (1) to elucidate the nature of spiritual care chaplains provide to different populations, including patients, families and staff; (2) to assess the prevalence and intensity of patients' spiritual needs and the degree to which they are being met; (3) to identify that subset of patients who are spiritually at risk in terms of having high needs and slow religious resources; (4) to identify the biological causal mechanisms by which religion influences health; and (5) to measure the effectiveness of chaplain interventions.]
8. Convener's Report and Annual Meeting Agenda
For the past several years, our Network meetings have included some discussion of the importance of research beyond the areas of the work of chaplains and the spirituality-health connection, to focus more on education and CPE. As several items in this Newsletter suggest, we are indeed becoming increasingly involved in promoting research into CPE. This will be the major theme of our annual meeting (Friday, October 24, 2008, at 12:15 PM, at the Omni Richmond Hotel in Richmond, VA). We were encouraged to pursue this line of research by our late ACPE President, Joan Hemenway; and now our current President, Bill Scrivener, has issued a challenge to bring research to bear upon CPE outcomes, curriculum design, admission practices, and certification reviews. We'll discuss how to advance this agenda.
In addition, we'll need to discuss membership and fundraising (in light of increasing charges by the ACPE), and I'd like to propose that we create an office to oversee precisely those areas. A Membership & Fundraising Officer would mainly be responsible for 1) contacting all new Supervisors and Associate Supervisors in order to encourage their participation in the Network, and 2) tracking current membership dues/renewals.
Our website is at the core of our Network's operation, and we should discuss--as always--how it may be made a better tool for our work. For instance, a dedicated section regarding the IIP project is already in the planning stage with Jack Gleason and Henry Heffernan.
Of course, as is traditional at our annual meetings, we'll try to preserve some time to catch up on one another's projects and research interests.
On a personal note: I have been Convener now for six-and-a-half years, and I am pleased with the progress of our work over that time. I continue to believe that we have a two-fold charge: one is to promote original research, and the other is to raise awareness of published research as useful to supervisors and students in general. To my mind, the latter is especially important, and this is the reason that our Article-of-the-Month series always includes ideas for discussion with CPE students. I hope that we can find new ways to bring non-researchers into the Network. Nevertheless, if we are going to press an agenda for research into CPE itself (as I've noted above), we should also think about just where in our organization we could find new researchers. One answer might be Supervisory Education students, for whom attention to educational/supervisory theory could be expanded to include knowledge of research that might, in turn, foster original research during the supervisory education and certification process. I hold that good research is done by those who are enthusiastic about the venture, and I think that we should make research a key topic in supervisory education, so that it might become an object of the enthusiasm that supervisory candidates naturally bring to the process for certification. --JE